Tuesday, May 25, 2010

Musical Skills and Children with Auditory Processing Disorder

how O starts every showImage by MMMMichelle via Flickr
This is the first study that systematically assesses musical skills in children with a formal diagnosis of APD (auditory processing disorder)  in the absence of other developmental disorders. The APD group did significantly worse than the control group in judging metre. Musical skills assessment in children with APD may help constrain our understanding of this heterogeneous condition.

Auditory Processing Disorder occurs across a variety of conditions:
Also, A person with APD may have a combination of different auditory processing problems or just one type of processing problem:

Auditory Decoding Deficit

  • Difficulty analyzing the differences between speech sounds
  • Difficulty on tasks that require discriminating or analyzing sounds (such as understanding new vocabulary words or spelling words that are read aloud)
  • Seems not to hear even though hearing is normal
  • Mis-hearing things frequently and not even realizing it until someone else points out the mistake
  • Says "huh" and "what" a lot or asks for repetition even when the person seems to be listening and paying attention to what is said
  • May have difficulty with the following areas because of not "hearing" correctly:
  • Vocabulary development
  • Grammar skills (use of plurals, verb tenses, etc.)
  • Using multiple-meaning words
  • Understanding who, what, where, when and why questions
  • Learning the differences between have been, has been, and had been
  • Reading, spelling and note-taking
  • Marked difficulty hearing when listening situations are less than ideal such as in background noise, rooms with reverberation, or large open areas such as the gym or playground

Auditory Integration Deficit
  •  "Hears" better with the right ear compared to the left ear
  •  May have poor phonics, spelling and writing skills
  •  May have difficulty getting the "big picture" that is necessary to do well in word recognition and spelling
  •  May have trouble using symbols, space or visual imagery
  •  May have poor visual-motor integration
  •  May be poor with the rhythm aspects (pauses, beats) of songs or nursery rhymes
  •  May have difficulty with fine motor skills
  •   As the child grows older and tasks at school and at home become more complex, it takes more work to figure out how to do a task
  • May, in time, start to give up when tasks get hard and exhibit poor listening skills as frustration levels increaseMay exhibit, over time, less and less ability to tolerate distractions

Auditory Associative Deficit

  •   Difficulty applying the rules of language to sounds that are heard
  •   Poor receptive language skills
  •   Low vocabulary for age
  •   May have poor understanding of complex sentences
  •   May have a variety of language difficulties such as any of the following:
  •   Difficulty with categories and labels
  •   Words that have multiple meanings such as "bark" (could be a dog's bark or the bark of a tree)
  •   Antonyms, synonyms and homonyms
  •   Negative questions such as "Why didn't she do that?"
  •   May say "I don't understand" or "I don't know what that means" a lot
  •   May have trouble understanding jokes or riddles with humor based on associations among words
  •   May have trouble understanding common expressions
  •   Phonics may be good but understanding of what is read is usually very poor
  •   May have trouble understanding word problems in math
  •   May have tremendous difficulty learning a foreign language

Auditory Output-Organization Deficit
  •   Trouble organizing, sequencing, recalling and/or expressing an answer
  •   Poor hearing in background noise (auditory figure-ground problems)
  •   May show signs of poor recall such as omitting words on tests, using words that were given on a previous test item, or having more trouble with the words depending upon the order in which they were presented (for example, trouble remembering words at the beginning of a list but not at the end)
  •   Difficulty when answers must be recalled in a specific order
  •   Trouble following directions that are long or have several parts
  •   Difficulty with motor-planning skills
  •   Trouble starting assignments
  •   Trouble remembering homework
  •  Trouble taking notes
  •  Trouble organizing papers and work
  • Speech-language problems may be seen, such as sound blending, expressive language or articulation problems
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