The Ear and the Auditory Cortex Image via WikipediaThe Buffalo Model is a conceptualization of auditory processing disorders (APD) based on the results of a three-test battery. Each test takes a different look at auditory processing and together they provide more than 30 indicators that help to identify APD and what types of problems it represents.
Prior to evaluation with the Buffalo Battery pure-tone thresholds, tympanometry and acoustic reflexes should be carried out to determine the status of the person's peripheral hearing and middle ear functions. There are 3 tests that are used to determine which subtype of APD that a person belongs to:
- SSW Test -
- Phonemic Speech Test - focuses on the discrimination of individual speech sounds, the degree to which they are remembered effectively, and how such sounds are synthesized into word. The great neuroscientist, Luria, noted that these three functions are specific to the auditory cortex of the brain, where phonemic decoding takes place.
- Speech-in-Noise Test - is used to analyze a person's understanding when foreground speech is competing with background noise in the same ear.
- Decoding Category - the brain has problems decoding sounds
- Tolerance-Fading Memory (TFM) Category
- Integration Category
- Organization Category
- Decoding problems: Phonemic training, emphasizing individual speech sounds.
- TFM problems: Speech-in-Noise (SN) desensitization and Auditory Memory Training.
- Auditory Organization problems: Sequencing. Remembering Strings of Numbers
- Integration problems: Dichotic Listening Training and some non-auditory approaches.
- Localization of Sound problems: Localization Clock Training