Thursday, May 24, 2012

Vision and Behavioral Disorders

Example of hazel-green eyes. Photo taken by my...
Example of hazel-green eyes. Photo taken by myself of my own eyes. Laurin Guadiana (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Very Interesting article tying Vision and Behavioral Disorders such as ADHD, Depression, BiPolar Depression, and  Oppositional Defiance Disorder

The way in which we judge a child’s visual attention typically involves sustained attention to nearpoint tasks. One of the hallmark features of convergence insufficiency is the inability to sustain attention when reading. On the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS), only 8% of children with normal binocular vision reported frequent inability to concentrate when reading as compared to 43% of the children with convergence insufficiency. (Borsting et al 2003) Loss of place occurred frequently for 58% of the children with convergence insufficiency as compared to only 11% of the children with normal binocular vision.

We might therefore suspect co-morbidity if not causality between convergence insufficiency and A-D/HD. 

One of the more intriguing theories about bipolar disorder is that the condition relates to vision through hemisphericity, the balance between left and right hemisphere integration, as well as chronobiology, the balance between sleep and wake light cycles. Papolos and Papolos (2006) posed the following question:

While the various interconnected brain nuclei and their multiple neurotransmitter, neuropeptide, and hormonal circuits keep us grounded in three-dimensional space, alerting us and assessing danger, remembering adaptive responses to environmental and social cues, what biological mechanisms anchor us to the passage of time, and how do they influence behavior? Their conclusion is that the timing of events within the central nervous system is at least as important to us as the spatial arrangements of the centers of neuronal activity in the brain. Viewed through this lens, bipolarity stems from dysregulation or desynchronization due to faulty biological clocks

Beyond the scope of our review, the entire field of syntonic phototherapy is structured around the concept of chronobiology and the application of light to influence the timing of the visual pathways and the functionality of visual fields. (Liberman 1991) Discovery of the significance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus on the release of melatonin has renewed interest in the potential for lens tints or more active forms of phototherapy to help influence mood and stabilize emotions. (Gottlieb and Wallace 2001).

This validation of syntonic phototherapy and chronobiology is surprising to me.  I had been following some syntonic phototherapy but had been a bit wary of it  as, to my layman's eyes, it seemed a little far out.  Apparently, I was wrong. 

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